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    برگ 1 از 8 12345678 واپسینواپسین
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    جُستار: Persian Mythology

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      Persian Mythology



      This thread is about Persian Mythology and Deities.




      ahuramazda.jpg

      Ahurâmazdâ
      تصاویر کوچک فایل پیوست تصاویر کوچک فایل پیوست persian-history-5.jpg   rostam-hyperwerks1.jpg   persian__mythology.jpg  
      ویرایش از سوی Mehrbod : 07-30-2012 در ساعت 04:18 PM
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      Sticky بجای وادادن در برابر واقعیت تلخ، بهتر است آدمی بكوشد كه واقعیت را بسود خود دگرگون كند و اگر بتواند حتی یك واژه ی تازی را هم از زبان شیرین مادری خود بیرون بیندازد بهتر از این است كه بگوید چه كنم ! ناراحتم! ولی همچنان در گنداب بماند و دیگران را هم به ماندن در گنداب گول بزند!!

      —مزدک بامداد


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      Ânâhitâ
      Part 1
      Aka: Anahit, Ardwisur, Aredvi Sura Anahita, Nahid




      lady-red-lisa-iris.jpg

      “Ishtar” by Lisa Iris


      The ancient Persian water goddess, fertility goddess, mother goddess, and patroness of women, as well as a goddess of war. Her name means "the immaculate one". She is portrayed as a virgin, dressed in a golden cloak, and wearing a diamond tiara (sometimes also carrying a water pitcher). The dove and the peacock are her sacred animals.

      Anahita is also represented dressed in gleaming gold with a crown and jewels. Anahita is often shown wearing a golden kerchief, square gold earrings, and a jeweled diadem, and wrapped in a golden-embroidered cloak adorned with thirty otter skins. (Otter is a four-legged mammal with short brown fur, which swims well and eats fish). Anahita is also portrayed and honored with offerings of green branches and white heifers. And she is sometimes depicted as driving a chariot drawn by four white horses, representing Wind, Rain, Clouds, and Hail. (A chariot was a two wheeled vehicle used in ancient times for racing and fighting and a horse used to pull it). Anahita currently appears in the World as a virgin girl bathing in a river, the singer that sings about the purity of the World, a hunter, a fashion model.

      In Susa, south of Iran, mother goddess was worshiped at least since early 4th millennium BC, with numerous statuettes of her found in the area. The tradition of worshiping the mother goddess spilled over to Mesopotamia, where it continued for thousands of years to come.



      anahita-vaezi.jpg anahita__by_trashcn.jpg
      “Anahita” by Trashcn | “Anahita” by Vaezi



      The first Persian goddess of productivity, and values, Anahita, was widely worshiped in ACHAEMENIAN TIMES. Achaemenian Artaxerxes II who reigned from 404 Bc to 358 BC ordered that images of Anahita should be erected in all the principal cities of the Persian Empire. It is documented that many temples were also built in her honor in Susa or Shoosh (the first Persian federal capital), Ecbatana (city of Hamadaan located 400 km southwest of Tehran in present-day Iran), and in Babylon (about 110 km south of Baghdad in present-day Iraq). Later, Anahita was widely worshiped in various parts of Armenia, Asia Minor and the West. Armenians called out to Anahita as the "Great Lady Anahita, Nation Glory and Life-Giver, Mother of Sobriety, and Benefactor of Humanity".

      Ritual prostitution occurred in Her temples in order to “purify the seed of males and the womb and milk of females,” according to Strabo. Armenians called out to Anahita “Great Lady Anahita, glory and life-giver of our nation, mother of sobriety, and benefactor of humanity.”

      According to some Ancient scriptures, roots of Anahita goes back to Pre Vedai Era. Her following were strongest in Western Iran. She is the deification of the planet Venus. She is named the eternal virgin.



      Source: http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fb...type=1&theater



      ویرایش از سوی Mehrbod : 07-30-2012 در ساعت 04:10 PM
      Reactor این را پسندید.

      Sticky بجای وادادن در برابر واقعیت تلخ، بهتر است آدمی بكوشد كه واقعیت را بسود خود دگرگون كند و اگر بتواند حتی یك واژه ی تازی را هم از زبان شیرین مادری خود بیرون بیندازد بهتر از این است كه بگوید چه كنم ! ناراحتم! ولی همچنان در گنداب بماند و دیگران را هم به ماندن در گنداب گول بزند!!

      —مزدک بامداد


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      Anahita - Part 2

      this ancient Persian goddess mother with various pregnant statues that shows the worship mother of gods from the new stone age in Persia that appears in different forms on the other eras. Mother-Persian goddess in Achaemenian manuscripts named Anahita. The picture of this goddess has seen in reliefs and behind the coins with a milled edge crown. Samanid art is kind of continuation of Sasanid art, and for this reason the figures have seen on this potteries affected by Sasanid art. On the Samanid potteries you can see the fertility symbols like snake, fish, new moon, palm leaf and pomegranate. It seems that women figures have a unique character.




      488011_411293688917332_562953962_n.jpg


      Persian-origin Sumerians were skilled astronomers, attaching each of the gods to certain star or planets. The mother goddess was sometimes attributed to the moon and some times to Venus. The reason behind this duality lies in the tradition of incest, which was not only allowed, but also sanctified in ancient Persia. According to this tradition which dates back to the cave dwelling period, the kings and noble men of Persia had to marry their close relatives, the offspring of such marriages enjoying priority to inherit the crown. The same tradition was observed among the divinities, so much so that the ancient goddesses appear alternately as the mother, the sister or the wife of the masculine god, having different ranks. That is why Anahita, the Persian goddess, sometimes appears, as mother earth and the goddess of fertility and birth, and sometimes as Venus, the goddess of music, love, jealousy and coquetry.

      Considering Her status as an Aquatic-Goddess She was also clothed in a garment of thirty beaver pelts that were, according to Avestan tabu, from beavers [Castor fiber] that have birthed a minimum of four pups.
      Subsequently, it was Ahura Mazda who bequeathed to the Goddess Her famous chariot and four horses—the personifications of atmospheric change—named Wind, Rain, Cloud, and Sleet.

      The Anahita Temple at Kangavar in western Persia (Kermanshah) is the most important of The Anahita Temples.


      Reactor این را پسندید.

      Sticky بجای وادادن در برابر واقعیت تلخ، بهتر است آدمی بكوشد كه واقعیت را بسود خود دگرگون كند و اگر بتواند حتی یك واژه ی تازی را هم از زبان شیرین مادری خود بیرون بیندازد بهتر از این است كه بگوید چه كنم ! ناراحتم! ولی همچنان در گنداب بماند و دیگران را هم به ماندن در گنداب گول بزند!!

      —مزدک بامداد


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      Anahita - Part 3 : Cosmological entity

      The cosmological qualities of the world river are alluded to in Yasht 5, but properly developed only in the Bundahishn, a Zoroastrian account of creation finished in the 11th or 12th century CE. In both texts, Aredvi Sura Anahita is not only a divinity, but also the source of the world river and the (name of the) world river itself. The cosmological legend runs as follows:



      1317019533697016_large.jpg 58109212.jpg


      All the waters of the world created by Ahura Mazda originate from the source Aredvi Sura Anahita, the life-increasing, herd-increasing, fold-increasing, who makes prosperity for all countries. This source is at the top of the world mountain Hara Berezaiti, "High Hara", around which the sky revolves and that is at the center of Airyanem Vaejah, the first of the lands created by Mazda.

      The water, warm and clear, flows through a hundred thousand golden channels towards Mount Hugar, "the Lofty", one of the daughter-peaks of Hara Berezaiti. On the summit of that mountain is Lake Urvis, "the Turmoil", into which the waters flow, becoming quite purified and exiting through another golden channel. Through that channel, which is at the height of a thousand men, one portion of the great spring Aredvi Sura Anahita drizzles in moisture upon the whole earth, where it dispels the dryness of the air and all the creatures of Mazda acquire health from it. Another portion runs down to Vourukasha, the great sea upon which the earth rests, and from which it flows to the seas and oceans of the world and purifies them.



      2548887729_0539cc1e50.jpg

      Statue of Anahita riding a chariot in Fouman-Gilan, Iran. Chariots figure prominently in Indo-Iranian mythology. Chariots are also important in Hindu and Persion mythologies, in which deities are portrayed as charioteers.



      In the Bundahishn, the two halves of the name "Ardwisur Anahid" are occasionally treated independently of one another, that is, with Ardwisur as the representative of waters, and Anahid identified with the planet Venus: The water of the all lakes and seas have their origin with Ardwisur, and in contrast, in a section dealing with the creation of the stars and planets, the Bundahishn speaks of 'Anahid i Abaxtari', that is, the planet Venus. In yet other chapters, the text equates the two, as in "Ardwisur who is Anahid, the father and mother of the Waters".
      This legend of the river that descends from Mount Hara appears to have remained a part of living observance for many generations. A Greek inscription from Roman times found in Asia Minor reads "the great goddess Anaïtis of high Hara".On Greek coins of the imperial epoch, she is spoken of as "Anaïtis of the sacred water."


      On this photo you can see statue of Anahita in Maragha.


      تصاویر کوچک فایل پیوست تصاویر کوچک فایل پیوست 558430_411670675546300_1957596701_n.jpg  
      Reactor این را پسندید.

      Sticky بجای وادادن در برابر واقعیت تلخ، بهتر است آدمی بكوشد كه واقعیت را بسود خود دگرگون كند و اگر بتواند حتی یك واژه ی تازی را هم از زبان شیرین مادری خود بیرون بیندازد بهتر از این است كه بگوید چه كنم ! ناراحتم! ولی همچنان در گنداب بماند و دیگران را هم به ماندن در گنداب گول بزند!!

      —مزدک بامداد


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      Anahita - Part 4 : Legacy

      As a divinity Anahita is of enormous significance to the Zoroastrian religion, for as a representative of Aban ("the waters"), she is in effect the divinity towards whom the Yasna service – the primary act of worship – is directed. (see Ab-Zohr). "To this day reverence for water is deeply ingrained in Zoroastrians, and in orthodox communities offerings are regularly made to the household well or nearby stream"
      It is "very probable"



      205253_411694498877251_303397584_n.jpg



      that the shrine of Bibi Shahrbanu at royal Ray (Rhagae, central Medea) was once dedicated to Anahita. Similarly, one of the "most beloved mountain shrines of the Zoroastrians of Yazd, set beside a living spring and a great confluence of water-courses, is devoted to Banu-Pars, "the Lady of Persia"."

      However, and notwithstanding the widespread popularity of Anahita, "it is doubtful whether the current tendency is justified whereby almost every isolated figure in Sassanid art, whether sitting, standing, dancing, clothed, or semi-naked, is hailed as her representation."

      The Armenian cult of Anahit, as well as the pre-Christian Armenian religion in general, was very closely connected to Persian Zoroastrianism In present-day Armenia, it is remembered as part of the historical mythological heritage of the nation, and the name Anahid is a popular female given name. In 1997, the Central Bank of Armenia issued a commemorative gold coin with an image of the divinity Anahit on the obverse.


      Reactor این را پسندید.

      Sticky بجای وادادن در برابر واقعیت تلخ، بهتر است آدمی بكوشد كه واقعیت را بسود خود دگرگون كند و اگر بتواند حتی یك واژه ی تازی را هم از زبان شیرین مادری خود بیرون بیندازد بهتر از این است كه بگوید چه كنم ! ناراحتم! ولی همچنان در گنداب بماند و دیگران را هم به ماندن در گنداب گول بزند!!

      —مزدک بامداد


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      Anahita - Part 5 : Magic and Rituals

      However, while Her cult flourished, particularly during Achaemenian times [ca. 558-330 BCE.], it was characterized by the presence of the Magi—Priest-Magicians, from whose root both “magick” and “Magus” etymologically descend—which would regularly meet to read their sacred texts among assemblies of the faithful, and offer “holy spells” unto the Goddess, perhaps on the tenth day from the New Moon or throughout the eighth month [of the native Persian calendar, or the Julian calendar]—both were celebrated as particularly propitious to the Goddess.

      The expression of Her worship likely involved a communal feast of sacrificial bull-meat along with a draught of Haoma (perhaps cognate with the Indic soma); an inebriating ritual-drink believed to confer communion with the Gods and induce an altered state of consciousness (probably engaging one on a shamanic odyssey of the psyche). Although, the exact botanical identity of this liqueur remains a mystery, a few possibilities have been suggested, In the Harirud Valley [Baluchistan], all members of the Ephedra genus are collectively known as hum, or huma; while Iranians still refer to Syrian rue [Peganum harmala] as hom or homa.



      anahita_light.jpg 318864_411741718872529_88408883_n.jpg



      During the excavation of an apparently pre-Zoroastrian temple [Ibid.], at the South-Eastern Kara-Kum Desert [Turkmenistan], remnaints of a fermented ritual-drink clearly containing ephedra [Ephedra sp.] were found at the fire-altar (perhaps being brewed there); while trace elements of the opium poppy [Papaver somniferum Linnaeus] were identified on associated equipement within the antechamber [e.g. pestles]. Moreover, during the Zoroastrian period an incantation was pronounced over the consecration of Haoma to drive away evil genii [“spirits”], while preparing the way for the reign of good, as dictated by the Avesta.

      She was also a goddess of magic, served by the Magi, who would meet to read their sacred texts among assemblies of worshippers and offer holy spells to Anahita, perhaps on the tenth day from the New Moon.During Her sacrifices, Her followers offered fragrant green boughs, white cows, horses and lambs. Her worship probably also involved a communal feast of sacrificial bull-meat along with a a ritual drink that engendered an altered state of consciousness and communion with the gods.


      Reactor این را پسندید.

      Sticky بجای وادادن در برابر واقعیت تلخ، بهتر است آدمی بكوشد كه واقعیت را بسود خود دگرگون كند و اگر بتواند حتی یك واژه ی تازی را هم از زبان شیرین مادری خود بیرون بیندازد بهتر از این است كه بگوید چه كنم ! ناراحتم! ولی همچنان در گنداب بماند و دیگران را هم به ماندن در گنداب گول بزند!!

      —مزدک بامداد


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      Anahita - Part 6 : her appearance in other regions

      Anahita was very popular and is one of the forms of the 'Great Goddess' which appears in many ancient eastern religions (such as the Syrian/Phoenician goddess Anath). She is associated with rivers and lakes, as the waters of birth.

      In Egypt, she was worshipped by Thotmes III where she was said to be a child of Set or of Ra. He was so impressed by this goddess, he adopted her as his “shield” in battle and named his daughter for her, Bin-Anat (daughter of Anat). On monuments, she was called “Lady of heaven and mistress of the gods” and “Lady of the Mountain.” She has also been called “mother of the gods,” “mistress of the sky,” and the “virgin Anat.”



      616619_411884718858229_1553956574_o.jpg

      On this photo you can see 4th century Sasanian silver bowl with high-relief decoration showing deity Anahita sitting on a lion and holding sun in her right hand.




      Anahita originated in Babylon and spread to Kemet (ancient Egypt), where She was depicted as an armed and mounted Goddess. The Greeks associated Anahita with either Athena or Aphrodite. In the Middle East, She was associated with Anat. Worship of Anahita spread to Armenia, Persia, and various parts of western Asia. Zoroaster was specifically commanded by his male god to honor Her.

      It should be noted that there is a complete distinction between the Persian Myth of Anahita and Anat or Anath. In contrary to Anahita, Anat or Anath was a goddess of the Canaanites, Phoenicians, and Egyptians, which was regarded as the goddess of war and violence. The Egyptians usually depicted Anat carrying a spear, axe and shield, and wearing a tall crown surmounted by two ostrich feathers.



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      Anahita - Part 7 : Conflation with Ishtar

      When Persia conquered Babylonia (in the 6th century BCE), Anahita began to show some similarities with the goddess Ishtar. Since then her cult included also the practice of temple prostitution. During the reign of king Artaxerxes (436-358 BCE) many temples were erected in her honor; in Soesa, Ecbatana, and in Babylon.

      As the divinity of purifying waters, Anahita is associated with fertility, healing and wisdom. At some point prior to the 4th century BCE, this yazata was conflated with (an analogue of) Semitic Ishtar-Inanna, likewise a divinity of "maiden" fertility and from whom Aredvi Sura Anahita then inherited additional features of a divinity of war and of the planet Venus. It was moreover the association with the planet Venus, "it seems, which led Herodotus to record that the Persis learnt 'to sacrifice to "the heavenly goddess"' from the Assyrians and Arabians"



      268394_411933665520001_1553363257_n.jpg


      In this statue, Goddess Anahita surrounded by members of the animal kingdom, this Goddess displays her role in supporting life on earth. (made From a pre-Roman bronze hydria (large jar) found in Switzerland, 600 BCE)




      Ishtar also "apparently" gave Anahita the epithet Banu, 'the Lady', a typically Mesopotamian construct that is not attested as an epithet for a divinity in Iran before the common era. It is completely unknown in the texts of the Avesta, but evident in Sassanid-era middle Persian inscriptions, and in a middle Persian Zend translation of Yasna, Also in Zoroastrian texts from the post-conquest epoch (651 CE onwards), the divinity is referred to as 'Anahid the Lady', 'Ardwisur the Lady' and 'Ardwisur the Lady of the waters'.

      Because the divinity is unattested in any old Western Iranian language, establishing characteristics prior to the introduction of Zoroastrianism in Western Iran (c. 5th century BCE) is very much in the realm of speculation. According to Boyce, it is "probable" that there was once a Perso–Elamite divinity by the name of *Anahiti (as reconstructed from the Greek Anaitis). It is then likely (so Boyce) that it was this divinity that was an analogue of Ishtar, and that it is this divinity with which Aredvi Sura Anahita was conflated. Boyce concludes that "the Achaemenids' devotion to this goddess evidently survived their conversion to Zoroastrianism, and they appear to have used royal influence to have her adopted into the Zoroastrian pantheon." According to an alternate theory, Anahita was perhaps "a daeva of the early and pure Zoroastrian faith, incorporated into the Zoroastrian religion and its revised canon" during the reign of "Artaxerxes I, the Constantine of that faith."


      In this statue, Goddess Anahita surrounded by members of the animal kingdom, this Goddess displays her role in supporting life on earth. (made From a pre-Roman bronze hydria (large jar) found in Switzerland, 600 BCE)





      anahita-goddess-carlos-reyes.jpg


      by Carlos Reyes


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      One of the Daevas, Aesma Daeva ("madness") is the demon of lust and anger, wrath and revenge. He is the personification of violence, a lover of conflict and war. Together with the demon of death, Asto Vidatu, he chases the souls of the deceased when they rise to heaven. His eternal opponent is Sraosa.

      Aesma Daeva

      Ahura Mazdah ("Lord Wisdom") was the supreme god, he who created the heavens and the Earth, and another son of Zurvan. As leader of the Heavenly Host, the Amesha Spentas, he battles Ahriman and his followers to rid the world of evil, darkness and deceit. His symbol is the winged disc.

      Ahura Mazda

      The Persian god of friendship and healing.

      Airyaman

      Ardvi Sura Anahita (also Anahita, Anahit, or “Immaculate One”), whcih means “the humid, strong, immaculate one”, was one of the ruling deities of the Persian Empire. She embodied the physical and metaphroical qualities of water, especially the fertilizing flow of water from the fountain in the stars. She also ruled semen and human fertility. She was viewed as the “Golden Mother” and as a warrior maiden.

      Ânâhitâ

      Aka Manah is one of the Daevas. He is the personification of sensual desire who was sent by Ahriman to seduce the prophet Zarathustra. His eternal opponent is Vohu Manah.

      Aka Manah

      The name of the seven divine beings who belong to the retinue of the highest god, Ahura Mazda. The Amesha Spentas ("beneficent immortals"), come directly after him in the hierarchy of gods, and can be compared with archangels. They are gods without being gods and creatures without being creatures. Together they fight for truth and justice.

      Amesha Spentas

      God of darkness, the eternal destroyer of good, personification and creator of evil, bringer of death and disease. He is also known as Ahriman, and his name means "fiendish spirit". He is seen as the personification of evil, he leading the dark forces against the hosts of Spenta Mainyu, the holy spirit, who assisted Ahura Mazda, the wise lord, and final victor of the cosmic conflict. Ahriman introduced the frost in winter, heat in summer, all manner of diseases and other ills.

      Angra Mainyu

      'God found in the water' who gives water to the people. He is a son of the water-god Vouru-kasa. Apam-natat has also some military aspects and he keeps in check rebellion.

      Apam-natat

      A demon who brings drought and aridity. He rides on a black, bald horse. Eventually he was defeated by the god Tistrya.

      Apaosa

      God of Honesty.

      Arishta

      Asha vahishta ("excellent order") is the personification of the 'best truth' and protects the physical and moral order on earth. He is the most prominent of the (male) Amesha Spentas and the principal adversary of the world of the demons. The second month is dedicated to him. His eternal opponents are the archdemon of lie, Drug and the archdemon of apostasy, Indra.

      Asha vahishta

      God of the Sky.

      Asman

      The Persian demon of death whom no human escapes. Together with Aesma Daeva he chases and tries to catch the souls of the deceased with a noose when they rise to heaven.

      Asto Vidatu

      The Persian god of all fire and of purity, son of Ahura Mazda.

      Atar

      A Persian god of prosperity and wealth.

      Baga

      The Persian god of the planets and victory. He is the assistant of Sraosa, and helps him when Sraosa rises the soul of the deceased from the body.

      Bahram

      A war god of the Iranian Kassites.

      Burijas

      In Zoroastrian mythology, the yellow demon of lethargy and sloth. He is the evil genius which causes men to oversleep and to neglect their religious duties.

      Bushyasta

      An ancient Persian demon of laziness who tries to prevent people from working. He is one of the Daevas.

      Buyasta

      In ancient Persian mythology they are demons who cause plagues and diseases and who fight every form of religion. They are the male servants (or followers) of Angra Mainyu, also known as Ahriman. The female servants are called the Drugs. Together they fight Ahuru Mazda (Ormazd) and his Amesha Spentas.

      Daevas

      An ancient Persian god of death and demon of deceit and mendacity. He loves destroying life. Dahaka is usually depicted with three heads, while scorpions and lizards crawl all over his body.

      Dahaka

      In Persian mythology, a demon of enormous power, a ruthless and immoral god of war.

      Dev

      A Persian water-demon who continually tries to devour the good things of creation.

      Gandarewa

      In ancient Persian myth, Geus-Tasan is the divine creator of cattle.

      Geus-Tasan

      The old-Iranian guardian of cattle. His name means "soul of the ox". He is the servant of Vohu Manah.

      Geus-Urvan

      A deified plant in Persian mythology whose sap, which has anaesthetic qualities, was drunk during sacrifices. This deity ruled over all medicinal herbs and grants immortality. It is associated with the purification of fire, and believed to have the power of providing husbands for unmarried women.

      Haoma

      A Persian sun-god. He belongs to the Yazatas, a group of good spirits.

      Hvar

      In Persian mythology, the many-horsed sun-god.

      Hvarekhshaeta

      The old Iranian god of warfare, courage and bravery.

      Indar

      Indra is one of the seven Daevas and the personification of apostasy. His eternal opponent is Asha vahishta.

      Indra

      One of the Amesha Spentas, Khshathra vairya ("desirable dominion") is the personification of desirable dominion and is associated with metal. He is the protector of the poor even though he would rather defend royalty. He enforces peace by using his weapons. His attributes are the helmet, the shield and the spear. The sixth month is dedicated to him. His eternal opponent is the archdemon Saurva.

      Khshathra vairya

      An ancient Persian god of the moon, one of the Yazatas. He is associated with the cow, which plays an important part in old-Iranian mythology, and presides over time and tide. He is mentioned as an assistant of Vohu Manah. The seventh day of the month is dedicated to Mah.

      Mah

      A Persian moon god.

      Mao

      An old-Iranian god of light, contracts and friendship. He also maintains the cosmic order. Sometimes mentioned as the son of Ahura Mazda, he assists him in his struggle against the forces of evil, represented by Angra Mainyu.

      Mithra

      The god of fire and messenger between gods and men in Persian mythology.

      Nairyosangha

      Messenger-god in ancient Persia.

      Neriosang

      Persian spirits of great beauty who guide mortals on their way to the Land of the Blessed. They also battle the Daevas.

      Peris

      The ancient Persian god of midday, the protecting deity of the south and of summer.

      Rapithwin

      The Persian divine angel of justice and last judgement and the personification of righteousness. Along with Mithra and Sraosa he judges the souls of the dead. Rashnu guards the Chinvat bridge leading to heaven. He carries the golden scales with which he weighs the souls at Judgement. Rashnu is one of the Yazatas.

      Rashnu

      Saurva is one of the seven main Daevas. His eternal opponent is Khshathra vairya.

      Saurva

      In ancient Persian mythology, Spenta Mainyu ("holy spirit") is the god of life and the personification of the good and the light. He is the twin brother of Angra Mainyu (Ahriman), the god of darkness, with whom he fights an eternal battle.

      Spenta Mainyu

      Sraosa is a member of the Amesha Spentas. He is the personification of obedience and the messenger of the great god Ahura Mazda. He also guides the souls of the deceased to find their way to the after live. His symbolic animal is the cock, whose crowing will call the pious to their religious duties. The seventeenth day of the month is dedicated to him. His eternal opponent is the archdemon Aesma Daeva.

      Sraosa

      In Middle Persian myths the messenger of the gods. He was sent down from heaven to announce to a king that his last hour had struck.

      Srosh

      In Persian mythology, one of the four leaders of the stars which fight for Ahura Mazda; the guardian star of the west who conquers evil.

      Vanant

      The ancient Persian god of the wind and one of the Yazatas. The twentieth day of the month is dedicated to him.

      Vata

      The Persian god of victory and the personification of aggressive triumph. God of Vrahran Fire, the most sacred of all fires. It is a combination of 16 fires, most of which belong to those in the metal-working trades. He punishes the evil done by man and demon. Verethragna appears in many shapes: bear, bird of prey, bull, camel, youth, warrior with a golden sword, wind, etc. His appearance as a bird and bear were especially popular. The twentieth day of the month is dedicated to him.

      Verethragna

      Vohu Manah ("good sense") is one of the Amesha Spentas, and the personification of wisdom. He is the protector of the animal world and is on earth represented by beneficial animals, especially the cow. He takes the souls of the just to Paradise. The eleventh month is dedicated to him. His eternal opponent is the archdemon Aka Manah.

      Vohu Manah

      The world ocean in Zoroastrian cosmology; it is also the sea deity. Also, the heavenly lake whose waters supply the world and in the middle of which grows the Tree of Life.

      Vouruskasha

      In Zoroastrianism the Yazatas are the deities to whom the hymns in the Zend-Avesta are addressed. They are also the guardians of the celestial bodies and the messengers of Ahura Mazda. The chief Yazata is Mithra and some of the others include Daena, Mah, Rashnu, Tistrya, and Zam.

      Yazata

      In old-Iranian (Avestan) mythology, Zam is the deified earth. He is one of the Yazata.

      Zam

      The primordial god in Persian religion, and the god of infinite time and space. Zurvan is the father of the good god Ahura Mazda and the evil god Angra Mainyu. With children representing the two opposites, Zurvan himself is regarded as a neutral god; one for whom there is no distinction between good or evil. Zurvan is also the god of destiny, light and darkness.

      Zurvan

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      Drvaspa

      Drvaspa is the Avestan language name of an "enigmatic" and "strangely discreet" Zoroastrian divinity, whose name literally means "with solid horses" and which she is then nominally the hypostasis of.

      The female genius of cattle.
      She is a female genius of the animal world. As the guardian of herds, she is invoked in company with Geush Tashan and Geush Urvan.-" A Yasht (9) is consecrated to her and bears her name, or more familiarly that of Gosh or Geush Urvan. Drvaspa moves about in her own chariot. Mazda has made her heroic and righteous. She is the bestower of health upon the cattle and kine. She watches well from afar, gives welfare and long-continuing friendship. She is nourishing, courageous, well-formed, possessed of weal, giver of health, and powerful helper of the righteous.




      Her sacrificers. The Yasht gives a list of her supplicants who have asked her to grant them various boons. They are the same persons that invoke Ashi Vanghuhi and pray for the same boons that they ask from her. The only difference between the forms of invoking Drvaspa and Ashi is that no offering is made to Ashi by any of her supplicants, whereas, in the case of Drvaspa we see that with the exception of Haoma and Zarathushtra the other heroes, Haoshyangha, Yima, Thraetaona, Haosravah, and Vishtaspa, bring to her offerings of a hundred horses, a thousand oxen, ten thousand small cattle, and the libations.

      The 33 verses of Yasht 9, the hymn to Drvaspa, are—appropriately adjusted—copies of verses 27–52 of Yasht 17, which is dedicated to Ashi. This has in turn prompted a suggestion that Drvaspa was once an epithet of Ashi, and as is common in Indo-Iranian religious tradition, the epithet developed into a name of an independent divinity.
      Because the hymn to Drvaspa is a copy of a section of the hymn to Ashi, and a part of this section also appears in the hymn to Aredvi Sura Anahita, these three divinities share several characteristics.


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      ویرایش از سوی Mehrbod : 09-02-2012 در ساعت 04:07 AM
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